Friday, November 26, 2010
Aculeata Agonistes: Bombus Squared & Gone?
Australian source that is more than 15 years old: “The taxonomic impediment to progress in the study of biodiversity is linked to a worldwide shortage of taxonomists who can be called upon to identify species, describe species that are new to science, determine their taxonomic relationships, and make predictions about their properties.” And, 15 years later, if you are interested in how Canada is dealing with TI, then you are in luck: last week the Council of Canadian Academies released Canadian Taxonomy: Exploring Biodiversity, Creating Opportunity. You can download the 4mb pdf for free – but to make a long story short: “Job openings in taxonomy have virtually ceased’ … ‘Canada’s ranking [in taxonomic publications] dropped from 6th in the 1980s to 14th in the 2000s’ ... [and most relevant to this post] ‘pollinators provide a crucial ecosystem service (via fertilization of crops) to agriculture, yet there is a growing taxonomic expertise gap in pollinator identification.”
John Ascher seems to have the talent to name that bee. For example, The Bugwhisperer’s recent spectacular photo of a Bombus melanopygus ménage à trios now resides name and all on BugGuide. The BugGuide route is tempting, but Dr Ascher probably has more than enough to do as it is. In theory, I have some skill with arthropods, small though it may be, and it’s not like I’ll be seeing any new bumble bees before May. If I could make a small, local contribution to the pollinator expertise gap, then it would be a pleasant break from shoveling snow.
Bumblebees & Mimics Key with some of the likely mistakes. Robber flies (Diptera, Asilidae, Laphria spp.) and hover flies (Syrphidae) such as Volucella bombylans are the mimics with the mostest – but as with the drone flies discussed in the previous post, the wings, head, and antennae give away their true fly identity. Also, any ‘bumblebee’ eating another insect is not a Bombus. If you live further south, you could be fooled by large carpenter bees in the genus Xylocopa especially the Eastern Carpenter Bee X. virginica, but they do not make their homes in Alberta. We do, however, have several bumblebeeish solitary bees, e.g. some digger bees (Andrena) and mason bees (Osmia). All I can say is that most bees do not resemble Bombus except in the most bee-general way, and those that do are only as large as the smallest bumble bee workers, their fur isn’t as brightly coloured, and they never have orange bands (but a red thorax is possible).
gallery of dissected male claspers. I’m sure this is a worthy project, but at my level of understanding, I can’t say that the images are of much help. However, the Home Bug Garden has now become a dangerous place for lazy, shiftless drone bumble bees (the corpses of whom are destined to repose in the Royal Alberta Museum – where irrespective any names I rightly or wrongly put on them, they will contribute to a record of what lived here at this time).
11 species worldwide and only 4 in the Nearctic. Range and unique colour patterns can be used to eliminate three of the four species from my female Bombus. That leaves Bombus (Bombus) terricola looking like some of my bees. A good colour pattern character is that the upper side (tergum) of first and fourth segments (T1 and T4) of the ‘abdomen*’ are covered in black hairs and the second and third (T2, 3) with yellow hairs (remember the skin underneath is black). This contrasting yellow-black pattern, I suppose, accounts for the common name Yellow-banded Bumble Bee. No other local Bombus have this specific pattern, although many are black and yellow. The only local Bombus with the first abdominal segment black belong to the subgenus Psithyrus – cuckoo bees that usurp young colonies of species in other subgenera of Bombus – and these kleptoparasites also have black-haired second abdominal terga.
Red List of Threatened Species (Mann 2010). I guess I can take some comfort in knowing that, although rare, they are still here around Edmonton. Perhaps some of these survivors are resistant to the introduced diseases and with luck the populations will eventually recover.
*All aculeate Hymenoptera have a ‘wasp-waist’ or petiole that divides the first segment of the abdomen from the remainder. Although there are technical terms for this reorganization of the abdomen, aculeate workers seem happy to use abdomen for the rump and start numbering with the first apparent segment, and so shall I.
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